Gout: traditional and new diet recommendations

Gout is a serious condition that results from the accumulation of uric acid and its derivatives in the body. This ailment is characterized by a violation of protein metabolism in the body and, for this reason, belongs to metabolic diseases. Since with gout, uric acid accumulates in the blood and urate salts accumulate in the tissues, the ailment manifests itself in attacks of recurrent acute arthritis. Unfortunately, gout cannot be completely cured, but the frequency of attacks and the duration of flare-ups can be significantly reduced. Adherence to an anti-gout diet is of utmost importance in treating and preventing gout.

Metabolism of purines in the body

When we say that the main cause of gout is high levels of uric acid in the blood, we do not quite understand how and why this happens. To understand this process, let's go to the basics of biochemistry. So uric acid is the end product of purine processes in the body. When the synthesis and decomposition of purine nucleotides are altered, metabolic products accumulate and, above all, uric acid.

Where do the elements purine come from in the body

But where do the elements purine come from in the body? Everything is very simple: they enter directly with food, and they can also be produced independently by the cells of our body. The process of synthesis and decomposition of purine elements is very complex, for example, adenines (derived from purines) are broken down into other elements, which are then transformed into xatins, which are then converted into uric acid. In humans, by the way, as in primates, uric acid is the end product of metabolic reactions and its excess is excreted in the urine.

It must be said that uric acid in normal amounts does not harm the body, especially if it is not retained in it. According to the allowed norms, the level of uric acid in the blood in men is 3. 4 to 7. 0 mg per 100 ml, and in women - 2. 4 to 5. 7 mg per 100 ml.

In case of metabolic disorders or diseases of the renal system, the level of uric acid in the body can increase considerably. The excessive accumulation of uric acid salts causes the development of gout. However, if you trace this biochemical chain initially, it becomes clear that the main role in the development of gout is assigned to the excessive consumption of meat products, meat and salt.

Purine compounds in food

Daily intake of purine compounds should not exceed 600-1, 000 milligrams of purines. Modern medical research clearly shows that only purines of animal origin affect the development of gout and kidney stones, but plant purines are completely harmless. They also cause an acute attack of gout, but to a lesser extent, milk purines can too.

Gout symptoms

The main symptoms of gout:

  1. Sharp and excruciating pain in the joints, which tends to develop at night, accompanied by redness of the skin and swelling of the joint.
  2. Acute attacks of gouty arthritis recur at regular intervals. However, without proper treatment, these intervals become shorter and the attacks become longer and more intense.
  3. Tofus (abnormal thickening of the subcutaneous tissue).
  4. Attacks of renal colic. The deposition of uric acid salts causes the development of nephrolithiasis and nephropathy.
The main symptoms of gout.

Gouty lesions occur in:

  • metatarsophalangeal joint of the first toes of the foot;
  • elbow, knee and ankle joints;
  • finger joints.

Gout diet

Current gout diet guidelines resemble principles of healthy eating that are beneficial for everyone. A diet for gout suppresses the synthesis and accelerates the excretion of uric acid from the patient's body.

The presence of this ailment in a person requires:

  • constant observation by a rheumatologist;
  • pharmacological treatment during exacerbations and remissions;
  • strict control of uric acid level in the blood;
  • review your lifestyle;
  • correction of your taste preferences.

A sustained remission can be achieved with a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, you must adhere to the following rules:

  • eat well, use low-purine foods, exclude animal fats, proteins and carbohydrates from the diet;
  • reduction of any type of load on the affected joint;
  • weight control, however, do not lose weight too quickly, as this can lead to a new gout attack;
  • fasting days according to a mono-diet (only one product is consumed during the day), medical fasting is strictly prohibited;
  • taking medications only as prescribed by a physician.

Since uric acid is a product of the metabolic reactions of purines, it is found in all cells and organs of our body and in practically all foods. A large number of harmful purines (adenine, guanine, xanthine and hypoxanthine) are found in animal products with high metabolic processes, for example, hot dogs, hot dogs, cold cuts, ham, bacon, as well as cells that divide at a high rate, such asyeast. Purines found in cocoa, tea and coffee, such as theophylline, caffeine, theobromine, do not pose a danger for gout. They are a source of organic acids that help to alkalize the body and eliminate excess uric acid.

What not to eat for gout

To avoid the recurrence of the gout attack, it is necessary to avoid foods that contain large amounts of purines. Therefore, a diet for gout implies, above all, the exclusion of the following products from the patient's diet:

What not to eat with gout
  • various smoked meats;
  • meat offal (tongue, brain, liver, kidneys);
  • all kinds of hot dogs, hot dogs, hot dogs;
  • table salt;
  • legumes (beans, peas, lentils);
  • fungi;
  • chickens;
  • lamb;
  • pig;
  • canned meat;
  • lard;
  • sorrel and spinach;
  • canned fish;
  • salted fish;
  • alcoholic beverages;
  • yeast drinks (beer);
  • salty and spicy cheese;
  • feta cheese;
  • cooking oils
  • seasonings and hot spices (bay leaf, vinegar, pepper, mustard, horseradish);
  • it is also strictly forbidden to consume fatty meat products, especially meat from young animals, as well as fatty fish;
  • rich broths of meat, mushrooms and fish.

Foods allowed in limited amounts for gout

The gout diet allows the use of certain foods, but their quantity must be strictly limited, especially during an acute attack:

  • pastry products;
  • eggs (no more than two eggs per day can be consumed);
  • low-fat varieties of fish (no more than 1 to 2 times a week);
  • boiled beef, rabbit, chicken or turkey cannot be eaten more than 1 to 2 times a week;
  • strong tea;
  • strong coffee and cocoa;
  • chocolate;
  • figs, plums and raspberries;
  • cauliflower;
  • green;
  • radishes and turnips.

Tomatoes cause some controversy, in this sense there are two opposing opinions: some experts recommend limiting their consumption, others consider that tomatoes are very useful for gout. Therefore, in this matter it is better to be guided by personal opinion, depending on your state of health. Oatmeal also raises some questions, since its use in boiled form increases uric acid in the body.

What can you eat for gout?

For gout, you can eat the following foods. They are considered healthy and can be consumed in unlimited quantities.

What can you eat with gout

Bread and flour products

With gout, it is allowed to consume bread (rye, bran, white flour) in any quantity.

Meat and poultry

You can eat rabbit, beef and poultry meat only once or twice a week in boiled form. It is not forbidden to bake meat, but without hot and spicy spices. The best option is steamed meat in a water bath.

Soups

Vegetarian soups form the basis of the gouty diet. It is recommended to cook soups, cabbage soup, borscht in vegetable broths, with the addition of various cereals and greens. Also okroshka and beets.

Milk and dairy products

Fermented dairy products are very useful for gout: curdled milk, kefir, yogurt. Milk, dairy products are also recommended: low-fat cottage cheese, soft and unsalted cheese.

Eggs

You can eat 1-2 eggs a day in any cooked form (poached, boiled or orsini).

Fish

Lean river fish can be steamed, boiled, and baked. Low-fat fish broths are also helpful.

Pasta and cereals

For gout, you can eat a variety of cereals and pasta. These foods should not be eaten in large quantities or too often as they contribute to weight gain, which is unacceptable for this condition.

Vegetables

Vegetables are also a staple for gout. They can be eaten raw, boiled and baked in unlimited quantities: potatoes, pumpkin, bell peppers, white cabbage, eggplant, zucchini, beets, carrots, cucumbers.

Fruits and berries

You can eat berries and fruits (except raspberries and figs) fresh, as well as after heat treatment.

Sweets

From sweets you can eat marshmallow, marshmallow, marmalade, natural honey, jam.

Sweets

Drinks

You can: tea with milk, weak without milk, mild coffee with milk, fruit and vegetable juices, herbal teas.

Sauces, condiments and spices

Sauces can be made with vegetable broths, milk and sour cream, with cinnamon, citric acid and vanilla.

Fats

Food can be cooked with sunflower oil or butter.

Sample gout diet menu

Diet n. 6 is prescribed for gout. This diet excludes foods that are a source of purines, table salt, fats, but allows the use of foods with sufficient amounts of vitamins, minerals and iron.

There is a diet number 6 with normal and number 6e, with a reduced energy value for people who suffer from gout and obesity. Such a diet consists of low-calorie foods (limits the amount of easily digestible baked goods, cereals, fats, and carbohydrates).

The diet includes alkaline mineral waters, citrus fruits, which prevent the accumulation of urate crystals in the joints and promote the rapid elimination of uric acid. Food is mainly steamed or boiled. Vegetables and fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. Diet in small portions 5 to 6 times a day, in between meals - drink plenty of fluids.

Nutrition for acute gout in the legs should be as follows:

  • vegetables and fruits -1, 5 kg (in broths, salads and main dishes);
  • cottage cheese - 400 grams (low-fat varieties);
  • kefir - 500 ml (low-fat, natural);
  • milk - 1 liter (diluted with water).

Gradually, as the acute period passes, meat and fish products (cutlets, steamed meatballs, boiled meat and fish) are added to the gout diet.

Weekly menu against gout

Monday

  • Breakfast: fruit with honey and yogurt (1 plate), tea with milk and breadcrumbs.
  • Second breakfast: a glass of milk or kefir.
  • Lunch: soup with vegetable broth with vegetable oil, vegetables or cereals and herbs.
  • Afternoon snack: carrot or potato cutlet, drizzled with low-fat cream.
  • Dinner: boiled egg with cucumber or a small serving of salad with cabbage.

Tuesday

  • Breakfast: cucumber salad with sour cream.
  • Second breakfast: fruit juice.
  • Lunch: rice soup with vegetable broth with potatoes, cabbage chops, compote of nuts.
  • Snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: zrazy carrot with prunes, lemon tea.

Wednesday

  • Breakfast: fresh coleslaw with sour cream; tea with milk.
  • Second breakfast: tomato juice.
  • Lunch: vegetarian borsch, chicken meat boiled in sour cream sauce.
  • Snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: buckwheat porridge with milk, stuffed cabbage rolls (vegetables and rice).

Thursday

  • Breakfast: tea with milk, prunes with cottage cheese.
  • Second breakfast: fruit juice.
  • Lunch: hot or cold beets (optional), vegetable stew.
  • Snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: fruit jelly, rice porridge with milk.
anti-gout menu

Friday

  • Breakfast: beetroot salad with vegetable oil, tea with milk.
  • Second breakfast: tomato juice.
  • Lunch: soup - vegetable puree with pearl barley, cabbage schnitzel, fried in vegetable oil.
  • Afternoon snack: grape juice.
  • Dinner: carrot cutlets with sour cream, fruit jelly.

Saturday

  • Breakfast: boiled egg, tea with milk, carrots stewed with vegetable oil.
  • Second breakfast: compote of dried fruits.
  • Lunch: rice soup with potatoes over vegetable broth; fried cabbage cutlets.
  • Afternoon snack: watermelon.
  • Dinner: scrambled eggs, stewed carrots, lemon tea.

Sunday

  • Breakfast: fresh coleslaw with sour cream, tea with milk.
  • Second breakfast: tomato juice.
  • Lunch: vegetarian borscht; boiled meat in sour cream sauce.
  • Snack: rosehip decoction.
  • Dinner: buckwheat porridge with milk, carrots stewed with vegetable oil.

Gout is not completely curable, but the frequency and intensity of its attacks can be controlled with diet. If you follow all the recommendations of the doctor, you can practically forget about the existence of such a disease.

Fast days for gout

It is well known that diseases are easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, in case of gout, fasting days are recommended. However, this does not mean that you have to starve all day. In addition, it is very dangerous, since the cessation of food intake in the body will lead to a sharp increase in uric acid in the blood. As a result, an acute gout attack will begin. Therefore, fasting days should not be "hungry". You can eat only one type of vegetable throughout the day, such as pumpkin or potatoes, or zucchini. These fast days resemble separate meals.

Fasting days for gout

You can also mix several types of vegetables and fruits if it is difficult to eat a single product. In addition to the vegetable fast days, you can spend days on milk, kefir, or curd. By carrying out such a flush diet, metabolic processes are simplified, which is of particular importance for gout. For those days, you can use a diet of rice or rice and apple. To do this, boil a small amount of rice (75 g) in milk and drink it in small portions throughout the day. Between the main meals, you can eat raw or baked apples. The total number of apples should not exceed 250 grams. Another product for a fast day is watermelon. There is even a special "watermelon diet" for fasting days. Watermelon removes sodium urates from your body, so you should eat it as often as possible.

General recommendations for patients with gout

  1. Avoid injuries to the big toe and avoid wearing tight shoes, as gout is very common as a result of joint injuries.
  2. During an acute gout attack, keep your leg elevated without forcing it. The leg should be relaxed and at rest.
  3. Apply a hot water bottle with ice to the affected joint for an acute attack of gout.
  4. Drinking lots of herbal teas during an attack helps flush uric acid from the body. During periods of remission, use mineral water in sufficient quantities with the addition of lemon juice.
  5. Follow a fasting diet, because it is a component of gout treatment.
  6. Try to lose weight as it puts undue stress on the affected joints and increases the risk of developing diabetes.
  7. Try to eat the "right fats". With a decrease in the level of purine bases, which are rich in foods of animal origin, it is necessary to include vegetable oils in the diet: corn, olive, sunflower.
  8. Take vitamin and mineral complexes. With any diet, a balanced diet is essential. To do this, you need to take a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals.
  9. During the remission period, you should lead an active lifestyle, walk outdoors often, and play moderate sports.

Attention! During the exacerbation period, standard recommendations about what can and cannot be eaten should be set aside. If an acute gout attack develops, seek immediate medical attention from a physician. During this period, you should choose a diet for a fasting day, consisting of one product, or completely exclude all foods from the diet and drink only mineral water with lemon. You can eat this way for no more than a day or two.