Gastritis is one of the most common diseases of our time. Unfortunately, this diagnosis largely deprives a person of important pleasures - gastronomic. A wide range of products for stomach ailments is prohibited, the use of many is very limited. What can be eaten with gastritis, depending on the type and course of the disease? Is it possible to periodically deviate from the recommended diet and how to avoid the consequences of such violations?
What to eat for gastritis with high acidity
For gastritis of this type (hyperacid), doctors advise following table number 1.
This therapeutic diet is a diet with a high energy value and an optimal balance of nutrients. It excludes products that act aggressively on the gastric mucosa and also increase the secretion of hydrochloric acid. Food that is too hot and, conversely, cold is also prohibited. Table 1 is based on easily digestible foods.
Food should be taken five to six times a day, with limited servings.
The gastroenterologist determines the necessary period of dietary maintenance.
The main tasks of the "first table":
- decreased secretion of hydrochloric acid;
- exclusion of aggressive chemical, thermal and physical effects on the gastric mucosa;
- improvement of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract;
- elimination of inflammation;
- activation of regenerative processes.
Table number 1 is shown for moderate exacerbation of chronic hyperacid gastritis, with stomach ulcers. It is also prescribed in the recovery stage after acute gastritis.
Proteins, fats and carbohydrates in this type of diet are in a ratio of 1: 1: 4.
With an exacerbation of gastritis with high acidity, boiled and steamed dishes are shown. The strict option foresees eating only in poor condition. The amount of salt does not exceed 10 g per day.
Now let's talk in detail: what can you eat with gastritis with high acidity? First of all, it is oatmeal, rice, semolina, buckwheat porridge, including dairy. Pasta and noodles are accepted. The diet may contain lean meat and fish in the form of steamed meatballs, cutlets, meatballs. During the recovery stage, tender meat and fish can be cooked in one piece. From vegetables potatoes, pumpkin, zucchini, cauliflower, carrots, beets are allowed, from fruits - fresh and baked apricots, peaches, bananas.
The list of recommended dairy products includes milk and cream, yogurt, fresh cottage cheese, cottage cheese casseroles, and cheesecakes. You can drink non-acid kefir.
The first dishes allowed are pureed vegetable soups, milk soups with chopped vegetables and cereals. Eggs can be boiled in soft water or with a steam omelette. Hard white bread and hard dough cookies are allowed. Safe candies for gastritis with high acidity: jelly (milk and fruit), mousses, jellies, marshmallows, marshmallows, sweet fruit jam.
With gastritis of the hyperacid type, you can drink diluted non-acidic fruit and vegetable juices, gelatin, dried fruit compotes, weakly brewed tea, sometimes cocoa with milk.
The list of prohibited foods and dishes for gastritis with increased secretory function is quite extensive. Meats and fish with a high fat content, smoked meats, industrial and homemade canned foods, hot snacks, sauces and spices, fried foods are excluded. Do not eat acidic fruits and vegetables, as well as fruits with a lot of fiber. Forbidden coffee, carbonated drinks, chocolate and ice cream, broths, any fresh bread, cakes, spicy cheese, hard-boiled eggs, legumes.
Sample menu of the day:
Breakfast: omelette, cooked in a bain-marie or viscous rice porridge in milk, soft tea.
Second breakfast: cottage cheese, crushed with sugar.
Lunch: soup with vegetable broth, steamed fish cake, cauliflower puree, dried fruit compote.
Snack: milk jelly, hard dough cookies.
Dinner: mashed potatoes, beef meatballs, rosehip broth.
Before bed: non-acid kefir.
What can you eat with low acid gastritis
Table number 2, prescribed for low acidity of gastric juice (hypoacid type gastritis), is less strict than the one discussed above. But the diet also excludes coarse, hard and indigestible foods, hot and cold dishes. Frequent meals are recommended, portion sizes are small. The timing of the diet is agreed with the doctor.
The purpose of the appointment of the treatment table number 2 is to stimulate gastric secretion, improve gastrointestinal motility. The diet is indicated for the exacerbation of chronic gastritis with secretory insufficiency, during the rehabilitation period after acute gastritis, as well as for enteritis and colitis.
The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates is approximately the same as in the previous diet.
Culinary processing of dishes, except for boiling and steaming, allows stewing and baking. You don't have to grind food.
With an exacerbation of gastritis with low acidity, you can eat:
- boiled, steamed and stewed dishes with lean red meat, poultry and fish, including minced meat;
- dairy and non-dairy cereals of any cereal, except millet, pearl barley and barley;
- soups with vegetable broth, unsaturated meat or fish.
The list of acceptable flour products includes dry white bread, cakes made with not rich dough, cookies, dry crackers. Omelet shaped and boiled eggs are allowed.
Dairy products with hypoacid gastritis are allowed almost all, except very fatty ones. Kefir, yogurt, yogurt, fresh cottage cheese and curd dishes are recommended. Milk for gastritis with low acidity can be drunk without restrictions.
Table number 2 allows the inclusion of different types of vegetables in the diet, except for those that act aggressively on the stomach lining (radish, radish, onion, garlic, pepper). They can be eaten boiled, baked or cooked. Sweet, baked, or pureed fruit is allowed. In small quantities, sweet fruit jam, honey, caramel, toffee, marmalade, marshmallow, marshmallow, mousse, jelly are allowed.
Can chocolate be used for gastritis? The answer, unfortunately, is negative. Fats and caffeine, which are rich in a delicacy loved by many, irritate the gastric mucosa, unacceptable for any form of gastritis. Milk chocolate is especially harmful.
- fatty meats and fish;
- rich meat and fish broths, soups from them;
- fresh black white bread, butter dough;
- smoked meats, pickles, canned foods (including homemade);
- hard boiled eggs;
- fresh vegetables, fruits with rough skin and seeds;
- confectionery, ice cream;
- hot and fatty sauces, spices.
Sample menu of the day:
Breakfast: oatmeal with milk / soft-boiled egg, cheese, cocoa.
Lunch: chicken noodle soup, boiled beef, buckwheat porridge, compote.
Snack: cottage cheese casserole, fruit jam.
Dinner: baked fish, vegetable stew, herbal tea.
Before bed: curdled milk.
What can you eat with chronic gastritis
In the remission stage of a chronic disease, treatment table No. 5 is shown. It is a diet with a limited lipid content and low caloric content, excluding the intake of refractory animal fats, raw foods, foods rich in extractive substances. All of this helps reduce the load on the gastrointestinal tract. The diet is displayed for at least two years.
The main tasks in table number 5 are to provide adequate nutrition, preserving the digestive organs, as well as reducing gastric secretion, improving the functioning of the liver and bile ducts.
The diet is indicated for all types of chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis in remission, for diseases of the liver, gallbladder and pancreas. The approximate ratio of protein, fat and carbohydrates for this type of diet is 1: 1: 5.
Of the culinary processing methods, boiling and steaming is allowed, in rare cases - baking and stewing. Forbidden fries, vegetables with high fiber content, it is recommended to clean the meat.
The list of allowed foods and dishes includes vegetarian soups, lean meats, fish, cereals of any cereal. From flour: dry bread made from rye and wheat flour, uncomfortable cakes, dry crackers and lingering cookies. The diet can include low-fat dairy products, soft cheese, and no salt. Eggs are allowed in limited quantities (no more than one per day) in omelet form or boiled.
Vegetables for chronic gastritis can be eaten almost all, except for white cabbage, radish, radish, spinach, sorrel, green onion and garlic. But vegetable dishes need to be shredded or heat treated. Sweet fruits are also allowed.
You can drink compotes, non-acidic fruit juices, rosehip broth, weakly brewed tea, coffee with milk. When it comes to sweets, it is no different than previous options for therapeutic diets.
Table number 5 prohibits:
- any fried food;
- baked goods, fresh bread, puff pastry;
- canned foods, pickles, marinades and smoked meats;
- fatty meats, poultry and fish, sausages, offal, refractory animal fats;
- meat and fish broths;
- fatty dairy products, spicy cheese;
- confectionery, ice cream, chocolate;
- hot spices;
- cold and carbonated drinks, black coffee, cocoa.
Sample menu of the day:
Breakfast: protein omelette with vegetables or cheesecakes with raisins, tea with milk, biscuit.
Second breakfast: baked apple with honey.
Lunch: potato soup, steamed meatballs, buckwheat porridge, tomato juice.
Snack: protein omelette with vegetables, gelatin.
Dinner: boiled chicken fillet, rice, beet salad with plums, rosehip broth.
Before bed: kefir.
Is it possible to drink alcohol, coffee and tea with gastritis?
Drinks were briefly discussed above, when describing the types of medical nutrition. Gastroenterologists advise introducing compotes, gelatin, rosehip decoction, fruit and vegetable juices in low concentration into the diet. But what about drinks that are traditionally considered harmful, but that at the same time occupy an important place in our gastronomic culture? How categorical are doctors about alcohol, tea, and coffee?
Alcoholnot only strongly irritates the damaged gastric mucosa, but also increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid. Therefore, with gastritis, of course, it is contraindicated. In the exacerbation phase, alcohol intake is out of the question. In the remission stage, alcohol is also highly undesirable, especially when it comes to its regular use.
Deviation from this rule is only possible if certain conditions are met. First of all, alcohol can not be consumed more than once a month in a small volume (1 glass of wine, 1 mug of beer, 50 grams of brandy). Second, the drinks must be natural, without chemical additives. And finally, with gastritis, in no case should you drink alcohol on an empty stomach.
What kind of alcohol can I drink for gastritis?
This can be dry or semisweet red wine, unfiltered "live" beer, vodka or high-quality cognac. Cheap wine drinks, "energy" cocktails, and canned beers are strictly prohibited. Sparkling wines are unacceptable due to their high carbon dioxide content.
<×caffeineand the tannins contained in this invigorating drink activate the production of hydrochloric acid. Therefore, with hyperacid gastritis, coffee is strictly contraindicated. For patients with insufficient gastric secretory function, it is allowed in small amounts (no more than 2 cups per day). In this case, the following rules must be observed:
- the coffee must be diluted with milk or cream;
- the drink should not be too hot;
- It is recommended to give preference to freshly ground natural coffee, since instant coffee contains a large amount of tannins;
- Coffee, like alcohol, should not be drunk on an empty stomach.
Of course, intermittent consumption of the drink is only allowed during remission.
Like coffee, black and green tea is rich in caffeine and tannins, which is why it also stimulates secretory function. At the same time, the drink has beneficial properties and promotes rapid regeneration of the gastric mucosa.
With hypoacid gastritis, the tea can be drunk without restrictions, with hyperacid gastritis, in moderation. The drink should not be too hot and strong. Black tea is best diluted with milk.
Is it okay to deviate from the diet?
Diet therapy is one of the main methods of treating gastritis of any kind, so it is highly undesirable to deviate from the doctor's recommendations. However, we all know how difficult it is to give up your favorite food, especially if a sudden change in diet is required. How to diet when gastronomic temptations lurk at every turn?
These are some tips:
You must follow the prescribed diet, avoid hunger. Long breaks between meals are harmful in and of themselves; Also, a hungry person is more tempted to eat something forbidden.
When going to the grocery store, it's best to bypass the departments for hot dogs, canned goods, and other harmful products. When there are no forbidden foods in the refrigerator, it is easier to resist the temptations.
It is important that the people around you are aware of the need to follow a diet and treat it with understanding.
If possible, avoid parties where greasy, spicy foods and alcohol abound.
Homemade food is preferable, even at work: Packing the "right" lunch in a container will avoid the temptation to buy something forbidden.
However, strict compliance with gastronomic restrictions is very difficult. Practice shows that even the most disciplined patients occasionally allow themselves to deviate from the therapeutic diet.
In cases where you cannot refrain from consuming prohibited products, you should at least minimize the associated risk. To prevent the exacerbation of chronic gastritis, to avoid the appearance of pain in the stomach, heartburn and other unpleasant symptoms, in particular, take medication - gastroprotectors help. They are drugs that belong to the group of antacids and adsorbents and have enveloping and astringent properties. These include, for example, bismuth preparations. Medicines based on this active ingredient form a thin film on the gastric mucosa. For several hours, it provides protection against the aggressive action of hydrochloric acid and external factors (rough, spicy food, alcohol, etc. ). Also, such drugs increase the intrinsic protective properties of the mucous membrane and have an antiseptic effect. It is recommended to take them shortly before the planned departure from the diet: in this case, the risk of negative consequences is minimal. These medications are not prescribed, however, they also have a number of contraindications, so we recommend that you consult your doctor first.
With any type of gastritis, you should follow the diet prescribed by your doctor. Basically, Tables 1, 2 and 5 are recommended for stomach ailments. And since they all involve a lot of restrictions, it is very difficult to avoid the "forbidden fruit. "To minimize the risk of an exacerbation of the disease in case of nutritional errors, it is recommended to take gastroprotectors for prophylactic purposes.